This fun book and song can be used to teach pattern, counting backwards, knowing one less, and understanding cardinality. For pattern, you can draw kids attention to the lines of the song that repeat each time and see if they know what changes—there is one less monkey jumping (rather than a growing pattern, it’s a shrinking pattern). You can ask children to act out the book by having five children pretend to be the monkeys and someone pretend to be the mama. They can see how the number of children (monkeys) jumping decreases by one each time the pattern (verse of the song) repeats. To practice the pairs that make 5, you can ask children how many monkeys are not jumping (if 3 are jumping, 2 are not jumping).